Astaxanthin: A Potential Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidant Treatment in Diseases and with Aging
Carotenoids have gained special interest during the last decades, due to their strong antioxidant, repairing, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and potential antiaging effects. They can be used to prevent oxidative stress-related diseases and chronic inflammation. Astaxanthin is one of the most powerful carotenoid on the market. In this review, special focus is oriented towards these compounds.
Recent human studies elaborate on the safety perspectives of natural astaxanthin, and so far, no documented negative effects have been found over its 20 years of consumption as a dietary . Clinical studies have found that natural astaxanthin supplementation improved blood flow in humans  and enhanced blood rheology by increasing the flexibility of erythrocyte membranes .
Astaxanthin emerged in the spotlight because of its potential pharmacological effects, including anticancer [44, 51, 52], antidiabetic [53, 54], anti-inflammatory , immune-stimulating effects [44, 52], and antioxidant activities [55–59] as well as neuro-, cardiovascular, ocular-, and skin-protective effects [60–64]. Studies found that astaxanthin reduces the oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemia in pancreatic β-cells and improves glucose and serum insulin levels in diabetes . Furthermore, it has been suggested that astaxanthin is a potential therapeutic agent against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease . In an elegant work, Barros et al. showed that “astaxanthin can directly cross the blood-brain barrier to reach different mammalian brain regions” [64, 67, 68]. Here, we summarize the effects of astaxanthin on metabolism, insulin resistance, and type-2 diabetes mellitus; furthermore, its advantages on muscle performance, recovery, and atrophy, and effects in the central nervous system and the skin will also be discussed.
My calculation shows that the ITP fed the mice a human equivalent dose of about 730mg of Dramamine per day for a 70kg person.
Here is the math:
The ITP used 800ppm in food (see attached photo). And 800ppm is 0.08%. A typical mouse weighs about 0.025kg and eats about 4g of food per day, so 0.08% is 3.2mg of Dramamine for the mouse per day. That is a dose of 3.2mg/0.025kg=128mg/kg. Divide by 12.3 to allometrically scale to humans, to get a human equivalent dose of (128mg/kg)/12.3=10.4mg/kg. So for a 70kg human, that would be 728mg of Dramamine per day.
I have taken /take it on and off, for several year when having any type of X-ray. I have taken/take several grams, yes grams. Several days before, the day and after. Use to purchase the Vitamin Shoppe brand.
FWIW, I recently have been using
Liposomal Astaxanthin Supplement that is 24mg per capsule. The last two bottles cost was less than .25¢ per capsule, 120 capsules was $23.59 with a coupon
Big astaxanthin believer and took it for years prior to rapamycin. Since starting rapamycin I get lower extremity muscle twitches after using it. They go away after stopping the astaxanthin. Some interaction between them. Not certain what’s causing it.
This study showing PPAR delta as an activator of pancreatic cancer got me wondering if astaxanthin may be problematic. Astaxanthin is a PPAR alpha agonist and I wanted to know if it affected the other PPAR’s as well.
Fortunately it appears that it does not act as a delta agonist, and in fact has no affect.
I get similar random muscle twitching, dramatically worsened by any kind of curcumin supplement (so I avoid curcumin). Took me forever to link it to curcumin, and I still have no idea what the mechanism could be.
Well, now that you mention it, curcumin also does it as does green tea extract. I have to avoid all of them for the first 3-4 days after my rapamycin dose or the twitching is a real nuisance, and also I start thinking that I have some neuromuscular disease.
What could it be? Is it some kind of excessive neuromuscular activation? What’s the role of rapamycin.
I think curcumin and green tea inhibit mTOR to a certain degree. Does it excessively inhibit muscle cell proliferation when used in combination and the muscles compensate by some sort of hyperactivation?