I ask this question and try to formulate a preliminary compilation with the main goal being synergy in terms of longevity AND short-term performance. Of course the effects of interventions can be more nuanced and it could depend on what type of exercise one is doing, whether it’s during, post-workout, or pre-workout but I don’t really know if this topic has been studied with all interventions at that depth.
Off the top of my head:
Sauna (some links here: FoundMyFitness Topic - Sauna)
Curcumin (?) (https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1749025)
Creatine - https://doi.org/10.1519/jpt.0000000000000222
AAKG or CaAKG (??) – AAKG is widely used by bodybuilders
Urolithin A (??) – (see: Urolithin A - Virtual Clinical Trial by Timeline Nutrition)
Acarbose (old 2006 paper: Combined treatment with exercise training and acarbose improves metabolic control and cardiovascular risk factor profile in subjects with mild type 2 diabetes - PubMed)
Astaxanthin (?) (Astaxanthin in Exercise Metabolism, Performance and Recovery: A Review - PMC)
SGLT-2 inhibitors (?) (see thread: For those who take SGLT2 inhibitors & Exercise, found this interesting)
Cold-exposure (post-workout) - Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training - PMC
GLP1-RA: seems to act synergestically w.r.t weight loss (139-OR: Superior Effect of 1-Year Treatment with GLP-1 Receptor Agonist and Exercise on Weight Loss Maintenance and Body Composition after a Very Low-Calorie Diet: The S-LITE Randomized Trial | Diabetes | American Diabetes Association), and glycemic control/diabetes (https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.12797)
but, apparently blunts exercise benefits on left-ventricular diastolic function and cardiovascular adaptations (Effect of exercise combined with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment on cardiac function: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial - PubMed, https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13754) even though they are in general good for heart health (https://dx.doi.org/10.1155%2F2018%2F4020492).
Unknowns with strong-implications:
Rapamycin – Synergy with exercise hasn’t yet been studied even though Rapamycin and exercise are seperately known to prevent sarcopenia A New Rapamycin Human Trial for Longevity | Lifespan.io
What about polyphenols, sulforaphane, lithium, 17-alpha-estradiol?