PQQ improves brain function in both younger and older adults

Pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt improves brain function in both younger and older adults

Masanori Tamakoshi et al. Food Funct. 2023.


Brain function is important for a good quality of life. Pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt (PQQ) has been proven to improve brain function and cognition in older adults (above 45 years). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effects of PQQ on cognitive function in adults aged between 20 and 65 years. PQQ (20 mg per day) was administered for 12 weeks to the participants. After 12 weeks, the participants showed improvements in composite memory and verbal memory. A further age-stratified analysis was performed. In younger adults (aged 20-40 years), PQQ improved cognitive function (cognitive flexibility, processing speed, and execution speed) after 8 weeks. Only older adults (aged 41-65 years) showed improvements in complex and verbal memory after 12 weeks. In the logistic regression analysis that included the results of all cognitive tests, the changes due to PQQ intake were observed at 8 and 12 weeks in the young and old groups, respectively.

PMID 36807425.


More studies:


Interesting! @John_Hemming have you looked into this at all, given your interest in mitochondrial health?

Dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjects

This human clinical study does look interesting:

Results: A total of 58 subjects (placebo = 31; Age = 70.91 ± 3.06 Y; mnemoPQQ® group = 27; Age = 72.10 ± 3.77 Y) completed the study over a period of 12 weeks of supplementation. Significant improvements were observed on the Cognitrax’s cognitive function domain score on “composite memory”, “verbal memory”, “reaction time”, “complex attention”, “cognitive flexibility”, “executive function”, and “motor speed” in the mnemoPQQ® group as compared to the placebo group. The DECO and the MMSE-J scores were also significantly improved in the mnemoPQQ® group. No adverse events were observed.

Conclusions: Study demonstrates that supplementation of PQQ disodium salt is useful in improving memory, attention, judgment, and cognitive function, in middle-aged to elderly population, who feel they have become more forgetful because of aging.

From WebMD:

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I took some PQQ and it completely freaked me out. It was the worst thing that happened this year. It seemed to drive up some bacterial response in my gut and I had an awful night. My CRP built up quite a bit although it later dropped down below the minimum measureable response.

I think one reason it caused an issue was that I also drank a lot and there is a combinatorial effect.

Hence although it remains on my list of interesting molecules it also has a big red flag. I am not tried it when not drinking, however.


A one or two-time negative reaction could just be a coincidence. I have taken PQQ on and off over the years and felt no subjective effects, good or bad.
Now that I am getting really old, by my standard, I think I will try it again with a larger dose, 40mg. daily for 90 days and then I will test my CRP to see if it has a negative or positive effect.


Hi, have you retried pqq?

No, only because I’m feeling good right now and I am loath to add to my present stack.


Very interesting new study. I probably took 20mg PQQ for about 5 years in a row but then eventually stopped because I wasn’t sure how important it really was. I may have to order some again.

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I’m back on it for three days now and I have to say, my energy feels normal again. It’s definitely not placebo but I also can’t rule out a coincidence either. Let’s see if this continues.

I dunno about this. I’ve been taking PQQ for years and I’m as dumb as a box of hammers!


PQQ seems to really help me with cognitive function and weight control. Could be a sign that my diet is chronically deficient in it.

It didn’t fare well on this new cognition study but that doesn’t mean it’s not worth taking IMO



'Dihydrogen-PQQ resulted in a significant elevation in serum BDNF levels at the six-week follow-up (P = 0.01)"

Unfortunately, there are not enough studies. Perhaps it is dose-dependent.
It’s found in natto, but I don’t like natto.


I eat 100g natto every single day, but PQQ supplements contain far more than what is possible in the diet, so I’m not entirely sure how much PQQ we would need to get for the mitochondrial biogenesis benefits.